SPICES

black pepper

Botanical Name: Piper nigrum L.
Family Name: Piperaceae

Black Pepper is the dried mature berry of Piper nigrum, a climbing, perennial shrub mostly found in hot, moist region of Southern India.The specie is naturally self-pollinated and pollen dispersal is aided by the presence of water droplets. Fruit is a single seeded drupe often called berry. It is spherical in shape, green in colour, changing to red on ripping.

cardamom

Botanical Name:
Family Name: Zingiberaceae

Cardamom of commerce is the dried ripe fruit (capsules of cardamom plant) often referred as the “Queen of Spices” because of its very pleasant aroma and taste.Indian cardamom is offered to the international markets in different grades: 'Alleppey Green Extra Bold' (AGEB), 'Alleppey Green Bold' (AGB) and 'Alleppey Green Superior' (AGS) are names that register instant appeal worldwide. Cardamom oil is a precious ingredient in food preparations, perfumery, health foods medicines and beverages.

cassia

Botanical Name: Cinnamomum cassia Blume.
Family Name: Lauraceae

Cinnamomum Cassia (Chinese Cinnamon) is the dried bark of cassia which is a small, bushy, ever green tree, 18-20 mtr high and 40-60 cm diameter with a straight and cylindrical trunk and grey brown bark, 13-15mm thick when mature.

chilli

Botanical Name: Capsicum annum L., Capsicum frutescens L.
Family Name: Solanaceae

Chilli is the dried ripe fruit of the genus Capsicum. Capsicum annuum is an annual sub –shrub, the flowers of which are borne singly and fruits usually pendent, which provide red peppers, cayenne, paprika and chillies and sweet pepper (bell pepper) a mild form with large inflated fruits. Capsicum frutescence is a perennial chilly with small sized pods which are highly pungent. It is commonly known as ‘bird chilly’ and ‘Tabasco’.

cinnamon

Botanical Name: Cinnamomum verum
Family Name:

The “True Cinnamon” or Sri Lankan Cinnamon is the dried inner stem bark of Cinnamomum Verum. Cinnamon plants are grown as bushes. When the plants are of two years age, they typically measure at about 2 meter in high and 8-12 cm at the base. It is at this stage they are ready for harvesting.

corriander

Botanical Name: Coriandrum sativum L.
Family Name: Apiaceae

Coriander is an important spice crop having a prime position in flavouring food. The plant is a thin stemmed, small, bushy herb, 25 to 50 cm in height with many branches and umbels. Leaves are alternate, compound. The whole plant has a pleasant aroma. Inflorescence is a compound umbel comprises 5 smaller umbels. Fruit is globular, 3 to 4 mm diameter, when pressed break into two locules each having one seed. Fruit has delicate fragrance; seeds are pale white to light brown in colour. There are two distinct morphological types, one erect and tall with a comparatively stronger main shoot and the other bushy with a relatively weaker main shoot and longer spreading branches.

fennel

Botanical Name: Foeniculum vulgare Miller
Family Name: Apiaceae

It is a biennial, aromatic, stout, glabrous, 1.5 to 1.8 mtr high. The ripe fruit (seed) is small, oblong, cylindrical, 6.8mm long, straight or slightly curved, greenish yellow, deeply furrowed, 5 ridged and having agreeable aroma.

ginger

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Family Name: Zingiberaceae

Ginger of commerce is the dried underground stem of the herbaceous tropical plant grown as an annual. The whole plant is refreshingly aromatic and the underground rhizome, raw or processed, is valued as spice. Ginger is a slender perennial herb, 30-50 cm tall with palmately branched rhizome bearing leafy shoots. The leafy shoot is a pseudostem formed by leaf sheath and bears 8 to 12 distichous leaves

nutmeg

Botanical Name: Myristica fragrans
Family Name: Myristicaceae

Nutmeg & Mace are two distinctly different spices produced from a fruit of an evergreen tree usually 9-12 mtr high. Mace is the dried reticulated ‘aril’ of the fruit and nutmeg is the dried seed kernel of the fruit. The trees are normally unisexual, bearing either male or female flowers. The male flowers are born in clusters, whereas female flowers are often solitary. Fruit is a fleshy drupe, spherical in shape, pale yellow in colour with a longitudinal groove in the centre. When the fruit matures it bursts open along the groove exposing the bright attractive mace, covering the hard black, shiny shell of the seed called nutmeg.

Turmeric

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa L
Family Name: Zingiberaceae

Turmeric is the boiled, dried, cleaned and polished rhizomes of Curcuma longa. The plant is a herbaceous perennial, 60-90 cm high, with a short stem and tufted leaf. There are 7 to 12 leaves, the leaf sheaths forms the pseudo stem. The lamina is green above and pale green below and has a length of 30-40 cm and width 8-12 cm. Inflorescence is a central spike of 10-15 cm length. 1-4 flowers are born in axil of the bract opening one at a time. About 30 flowers are produced in a spike. Seeds are produced in capsules and there will be one to numerous sunken capsules in an inflorescence.

white pepper

Botanical Name: Piper nigrum L.
Family Name: Piperaceae

White pepper consists of the seed of the pepper plant alone, with the darker coloured skin of the pepper fruit removed. This is usually accomplished by a process known as retting, where fully ripe red pepper berries are soaked in water for about a week, during which the flesh of the pepper softens and decomposes. Rubbing then removes what remains of the fruit, and the naked seed is dried. Sometimes alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed, including removing the outer layer through mechanical, chemical or biological methods.

Bayleaves

Botanical Name: Laurus nobilis L.
Family Name: Lauraceae

Bay Leaf or Laurel Leaf are dried leaves are an evergreen shrub or more rarely a tree attaining a height of 15 to 20 mtrs. The upper surface of the leaf is glabrous and shiny, olive green, and lower surface is dull olive to brown with a prominent rib and veins. The aroma of the crushed leaves is delicate & fragrant and taste is aromatic and bitter. The size of the leaves is ranging from 2.5 to 7.5 cms in length and 1.6 to 2.5 cms in breadth. The shape is elliptical and tapering to a point at the base and tip of the leaves.

Allspice

Botanical Name: Pimenta dioica
Family Name: Myrtaceae

Allspice trees are evergreen medium sized, grow up to a height of 8 to 10 meters and with a slender upright trunk and smooth greyish bark. The mail trees produce only few fruits. The male and female trees are similar in appearance and cannot be identified till flowering commences.

curry leaves

Botanical Name: Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel
Family Name: Rutaceae

The leaves of curry leaf tree is a spice. The tree is an aromatic deciduous one, five meter in height, 15-40 cm in diameter. It is cultivated mainly in homesteads but to a certain extent on a plantation scale.

fenugreek

Botanical Name: Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
Family Name: Fabaceae

Fenugreek seed is the ripe fruit of an annual herb. This robust herb has light green leaves, is 30-60 cm tall and produces slender, beaked pods, 10-15 cm long, each pod contains 10-20 small hard yellowish brown seeds, which are smooth and oblong, about 3mm long, each grooved across one corner, giving them a hooked appearance.

cloves

Botanical Name: Syzygium aromaticum
Family Name: Myrtaceae

The clove of commerce is the air-dried unopened flower bud obtained from evergreen medium sized tree. The tree grows to a height of 10-12 mtrs and start flowering in about 7 years. It continues to produce flower buds for 80 or more years. It is a valuable spice of the orient. Clove clusters are plucked by hand when the buds are fully developed with a pronounced pink flush and then dried over several days in the sun. Unopened flower buds, leaves and stalks yield essential oil.

cumin

Botanical Name: Cuminum cyminum L.
Family Name: Apiaceae

Cumin is the dried, white fruit with greyish brown colour of a small slender annual herb. The surface of the fruit has 5 primary ridges, alternatively has 4 less distinct secondary ridges bearing numerous short hairs. The plant is 15 to 50 cm high. The aromatic seed like fruit is elongated, ovoid, 3 to 6 mm long, slightly bitter and has a warm flavour. The flowers are white or rose coloured in small umbels.

caraway

Botanical Name: Carum carvi
Family Name: Apiaceae

Caraway of commerce is the fruit of a biennial herb. The plant has a fleshy root and slender branched stem that attains a height of 0.5 to 0.6 mtrs, with small white flowers in compound umbels. The fruit when ripened splits into narrow elongated carpel, 4 to 6.5mm long, curved, pointed at ends with 5 longitudinal ridges on the surface. The dried fruit is brown in colour has pleasant odour is with sharp taste. Seeds are hard and sharp to touch

mustard seed

Botanical Name: Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Co
Family Name: Brassicaceae

Mustard is an annual herb cultivated as oil seed crop or as vegetable or as fodder, of which, 3 species are known for its condiment value. They are pale yellow or white mustard (Brassica hirta), brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and black mustard (Brassica nigra). The leaves of the plant are alternate, long, bristly branched, petiolate, hairy on both sides. Flowers are small, yellow with 4petals, cruciform. Seeds are 1.5-3mm

dill seeds

Botanical Name: Anethum graveolens L.
Family Name: Apiaceae

Dill is a herbaceous annual with pinnately divided leaves. The ripe, light brown seeds emit an aromatic odour. The leaves have pleasant aromatic odour and warm taste. Both seeds and leaves are valued as spice.

Vanilla

Botanical Name: Vanilla planifolia Andrews
Family Name: Orchidaceae

Vanilla, a member of the orchid family is a climbing monocot possessing a stout, succulent stem; short petioled, oblong leaves; about 20 cm long. The inflorescence is a raceme with 20 or more flowers. Flowers are 6 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, either yellowish green or white. Fruit popularly known as ‘beans’ or ‘pod’ is a capsule, nearly cylindrical and about 20 cm long.

Tamarind

Botanical Name: Tamarindus indica L.
Family Name: Cesalpiniaceae

The ripe fruit of tamarind tree is used as a condiment. It is a moderate size to large, evergreen tree, up to 24 mtr in high and 7 mtr in girth. Bark is brown or dark gray, longitudinally and horizontally fissured. Leaves are paripinnate up to 15 cm long, leaflets are 10-20 pairs, oblong, 8-30 mm. Flowers are small, yellowish with pink stripes, pods are 7.5-20 cm long, 2.5 cm broad, 1 cm thick, more or less constricted between seeds, slightly curved, brownish coloured. Seeds are 3-12 oblong compressed, 1.5 cm, dark brown shining. Endocarp is light brownish, sweetish or acidic, edible pulp, traversed by branched ligneous strands. The outer cover of the pod is fragile and easily separable.

Paprika

Botanical Name: Tamarindus indica L.
Family Name: Cesalpiniaceae

Paprika is one of the most traded in spice, native to South America. The plant is cultivated for its fruit, which is dried and used as a spice or seasoning. Paprika powder is used as a spice or seasoning and as a food colorant in a variety of cuisines. It is an annual plant which bears a green fruit when unripe and changes to red paprika color on ripening. Only red paprika color are processed into spice. The plant is extensively cultivated in Hungary. A variety of paprika are being grown the world over for different taste and aroma.

Celery

Botanical Name: Apium graveolens L.
Family Name: Apiaceae

Celery is an umbelliferous, aromatic, herbaceous plant grown for its leaves, seeds, oleoresin and essential oil. Celery plant is usually 30-60 cm high, erect with conspicuously jointed stems, bearing well-developed leaves on long expanded petioles. The rigid fruit is small, ovoid, 1 to 1.5mm long, 1 to 2mm in diameter, contains a small brown seed.

Sesame

Botanical Name: Sesamum indicum
Family Name: Pedaliaceae

The sesame plant is an annual plant, Sesamum indicum, which can grow to over 6 feet although most varieties range from 2-3 ft. It prefers a hot climate, is drought resistant but can’t tolerate frost. The flowers range from white to lavender-pink, similar in appearance to foxglove. Once mature, pods form which contain the sesame seeds….over 100 per pod! The seeds are tiny, flat ovals, measuring about 3 mm (1/8 in) long. Seed colour can vary, though they are usually beige or creamy white when husked.

Herbs

Basil

Botanical Name: Ocimum basilicum L.
Family Name: Lamiaceaee

Basil also known as French Basil or Sweet Basil or Tulsi is an erect glabrous herb, 30-90 cm high is indigenous to India. The leaves of basil have numerous oil glands with aromatic volatile oil. The herb bears cluster of small white lipped flowers in racemes. The freshly picked bright green leaves turns brownish green when dried and become brittle and curled. The major types are American Basil, French Basil, Egyptian Basil and Indian Basil.

Senna

Botanical Name: Cassia Angustifoia (Tinnevelly Senna)
Family Name: Caesalpininiace

There are roughly between 250 and 300 species of plants in the senna family, but S. alexandrina is attributed as the source of senna leaf and senna pods used in herbal medicine. With the exception of Europe, the plant thrives in the tropical and subtropical regions of every continent in the world. It is grown extensively as a commercial crop in southern Egypt and northern Sudan, where the herb is a significant source of income to farmers and distributors. The plant is harvested twice each year, dried in the sun and transported to ports along the Red Sea via camel caravans

Oregano

Botanical Name: Origanum vulgare
Family Name: Lamiaceae

Oregano is a perennial herb with creeping roots, 30-90 cm high, branched woody stems and opposite, petiolate and hairy leaves (1.5 cm long). The flowers are pale purple and the flowering period extends from late June to August. Each flower produces four small structures. The foliage is dotted with small glands containing the volatile oil, which gives the plant aroma and colour.

Rosemary

Botanical Name: Rosmarinus officinalis
Family Name: Lamiaceae

Rosemary of commerce comprises dried leaves of evergreen shrub of Rosmarinus Officinalis. This is a dense, evergreen, hardy, perennial, aromatic herb, 90 cm high with small (2-4 cm) pointed, sticky, hairy leaves. The upper surface of the leaf is dark green whereas it is white on the lower side. The leaves are resinous. Branches are rigid with fissured bark and stem is square, woody and brown. Pale blue small flowers appear in cymose inflorescence. It can be grown either as a field crop or as an indoor plant .

DEHYDRADED SPICES

Dehydrated Onion

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Dehydrated green pepper

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Dehydrated Fenugreek Leaves

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Dehydrated Garlic

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Dehydrated Ginger

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